Was Prophet Muhammad(SAWA) Poisoned Or Did He Died A Natural Death.

                                                         سم الله الرحمن الرحيم
                                   اللهم صل على محمد وال محمد وعجل فرجهم والعن عدوهم

Question:

Some say the narration that speaks of the poisoning of the prophet (pbuh) is rejected because it is “mursal” and also because we cannot make a judgement on a person for a crime if there is no two just witnesses and if the offenders did not confess to their crime, and they also say the poisoning of the prophet is not a common fact between the scholars, is this true?

Answer:

Some may think that if a narration is transmitted in a mursal form (narration were a narrator does not mention the channel of transmission to the Imam), is rejected. This is not true. Not mentioning the  chain of narrators or mentioning them briefly does not necessarily have to affect the authenticity of the chain or the authenticity of the content of the narration, at times a mursal narration can be certain and at times it can be Th’an (when the authenticity of a hadith has not reached the level certainty) .Whomsoever claims that Th’ani narrations can never be used as evidence is an ignorant and  is not aware of how Th’an can be used as Hujjah. Hence, some Ahadith their chain can be Th’ani but the significance of it can be certain, so therefore how can it not be valid to present a Hadith that is Th’ani  in chain but the significance is certain, as evidence?

Shiekh al-Tusi ( r.a ) who is considered amongst the most strict scholars in scrutinizing chains and narrators, was the leading scholar in this field and scholars of  Usool took their teachings of him in this field, did not find an objection in accepting some narrations that are Th’ani when they are not in conflict with authentic narrations or if the narrators were not identified as being fabricators of hadith. (Refer to Malem ad-Deen P230 and P245)

Some of the Islamic laws that we practise on day to day basis, are derived from mursal narrations like the principle “asalat al-ebaha” (the principle that states everything is halal till proven haraam), hence if we are accepting Islamic law principles based on a mursal narrations, then where is the problem in accepting historical events based on mursal narrations? If we were to reject all mursal narrations then we would be left with no history! Since the majority of the historical events were transmitted through mursal narrations. If we are going to reject the narration that speaks of the poisoning of the prophet peace be upon him and his Household, because it is mursal, then we might as well reject the majority of the narrations in regards to karbala, since the majority of its narrations are mursal. This would also be the case, in regards to the martyrdom of the majority of the Imams peace be upon them  the reports of their martyrdom was not narrated through multiple and abundant chains which imply certainty, but through narrations that imply strong probability, nothing more.

Al’ama Al-Majlisi (r.a) states: “Due to the large amount of hadiths which general and explicity speak of the martyrdom of the majority of the infallibles and how they were martyred there is no valid reason to refuse those narrations…it is true only imam Ali, Fatima, Hassan, Hussein, Musa ibn jafar and Ali ibn musa martyrdom, the reports are multiple and abundant which implies certainty in their martyrdom, as for the rest of the infallibles the reports only imply strong probability, however there is no other evidence that negates this, the reports of the conditions in which they lived under and the reports of their opponents witness for their martyrdom”. ( Refer: Biharul Anwar V26 P217)

We also read that Shiekh Al-sadooq (r.a) listed the poisoning of the prophet peace be upon him and his Household amongst the beliefs of the Shias, in his book (The faith of the shia page 109-110)

And what is odd is that some claim that the poisoning of the prophet peace be upon him and his Household is not a common fact between the scholars, or what is proven by them is not an evidence!  Here is a list of scholars that spoke of this issue:

Rawzat al-wa’iden, by Al-Fatal nishabouri page 71

 

“know that the prophet pbuh passed away in madina whilst being poisoned, on a Monday, on the last two remaining nights of saffar 10 AH, at the age of 63″

Sharh usool al-kafi, by mawla muhammed saleh al-mazandarani V7 page 143

 

” his saying he passed away on the 12th night, in the book al-tahzeeb it is mentioned he passed away after he was poisoned on a Monday, in the last two remaining nights of saffar 10 AH”

al-mukni’a, by shiekh al-Mufeed page 456

 

“He (the prophet) passed away poisoned, on a Monday, in the last two remaining nights of saffar 10 AH, at the age of 63″

Tahreer al-Ahkam, allamah al-Hilli V2 page 118

“He (the prophet) passed away poisoned, on a monday, in the last two remaining nights of saffar 10 AH, at the age of 63″

Muntaha al-matalib, allamah al-Hilli V2 page 887

“He (the prophet) passed away poisoned, on a monday, in the last two remaining nights of saffar 10 AH, at the age of 63″

Masharik alshumoos, al-Muhaqiq al-Khowansari V2 pages 450-451

“He (the prophet) passed away poisoned, on a monday, in the last two remaining nights of saffar 10 AH, at the age of 63″

Al-duroos, shaheed al-Awal V2 P 7-8

“al-Mufeed mentioned the third year, and he (the prophet) passed away poisoned”

Al-Hade’ak alnadirah-al-Muhaqiq albahrani V12 P424

“Allamah al-hilli mentioned in al-Muntaha, that he passed away poisoned

Kashf alghataa, by shiekh jafar kashef alghataa V1 P5

“He (the prophet) passed away poisoned, on a monday, in the last two remaining nights of saffar 10 AH, at the age of 63″

Tahzeeb al-Ahkam, shiekh al-Tusi V6 pages 2-3

“He (the prophet) passed away poisoned, on a monday, in the last two remaining nights of saffar 10 AH, at the age of 63″

Al-Anwar al-Bahiya-Shiekh Abas al-Qummi page 41

“He (the prophet) passed away poisoned, on a monday, in the last two remaining nights of saffar 11 AH, at the age of 63″

Naqd alrijal, by al-Tafrishi V5 P318

“He (the prophet) passed away poisoned, on a monday, in the last two remaining nights of saffar 10 AH, at the age of 63″

Jami’ al-ruwat, Muhammed ali al-Ardbili V2 page 463

“He (the prophet) passed away poisoned, on a monday, in the last two remaining nights of saffar 10 AH, at the age of 63″

Ma’rij al-yaqeen, by shiekh muhammed al-sabzawari page 70

“He (the prophet) passed away poisoned, on a monday, in the last two remaining nights of saffar 11 AH, at the age of 63″

Al-Majlis al-fakhera fi masa’eb al-etrah altahira, by sayed sahraf ad-Deen page 260

“His (the prophet) lord chose him to pass away poisoned in madinah, on a monday, in the last two remaining nights of saffar 11 AH, at the age of 63, and he was burried in his house”

Al-bayan fi aqa’ed ahlul eman by shiekh al-shari’ati al-Asfahani page 41

“He (the prophet) passed away poisoned, on a Monday, in the last two remaining nights of saffar 11 AH, at the age of 63″

Some have said that the narration cannot be accepted because there is no two just witnesses that witnessed the crime, or because the offenders did not confess to their crime, this is more of a joke!, this issue (a just witness and confession) is studied in making judgemental rulings and not in affirming or negating historical facts, for have you ever heard of a tyrant who confessed to his crime? The Ma’mun (May the curse of Allah be on him) for an example poisoned Imam Alrida peace be upon him, he cried on the Imam, made a consolation for the imam, and there was no just witnesses to the crime? So should we make Mu’mun innocent from his crime?

Furthermore, in this discussion we are studying the root of the issue, whether the prophet peace be upon him and his Household died after being poisoned, as for the source of this poison, is it from khaibar as the scholars who follow the teaching of the sahabah believe and some of the scholars who follow the Ahlul Bayt school of thought believe or was the prophet peace be upon him and his Household poisoned at his own house, or he died because he was affected from both poisons, this requires a study on its own, we will touch on it, when required.

Peace be upon you O’ the messenger of Allah. O Martyr O the one who was poisoned, may the eternal curse of God be upon both of your killers and their father’s.